Diabetes And It’s Complications | Healios

Diabetes and it’s Complications

Diabetes and it’s Complications

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.

Types of Diabetes: There are three main types of diabetes

  1. Type 1 diabetes  :

This results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and requires treatment with insulin.

  1. Gestational diabetes:

This results when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Type 2 diabetes:

This result from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This is the most common form of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following:

    1. Fasting plasma glucose level ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL).
    2. Plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test.
    3. Symptoms of hyperglycemia and casual plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL).
    4. Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) ≥ 6.5%.

Approximately 90 percent of all diabetics in the world are type 2 diabetics.

‘Diabesity’ is the term for diabetes occurring in the context of obesity.

Diabetes and Obesity has resulted in Diabesity Epidemic.

Type 2 Diabetes has also been termed as “Economic Tsunami “, because of the amount of cost involved in its treatment.

The incidence of Diabesity is raising in Asia Pacific .It is a challenge for the individual, society and health care system.

Diabetes kills 4.6 million people worldwide a year.

There are more than 346 million people with this disease .Number is expected to double by 2030 to 552 million

Complications of Diabetes Mellitus:
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without proper treatment can result in long term complications.
In this form of diabetes, the body does not produce enough of the hormone insulin, or the cells in the body do not use insulin properly.

Insulin is necessary for the body to be able to use glucose or blood sugar for energy. As a result, glucose builds up in the blood, where it can wreak havoc, instead of going into cells.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus can result in Microangiopathy and Macroangiopathy
Microangiopathy effects small vessels and Macroangiopathy effects the larger vessels in the body resulting in devastating complications .

Microangiopathy is usually in the form of

  1. Diabetic Retinopathy: This is the leading cause of blindness in adults
  2. Diabetic Neuropathy:  This results in numbness and paresthesias of both the upper and lower extremities, hampering routine activities of the individual. This is the leading cause of non traumatic amputations in the adults.
  3. Diabetic Nephropathy: This effects the patients kidney and  it is the leading cause of renal failure in adults . It is also become the main cause for renal transplantation.

Macroangiopathy results in

  1.  Coronary artery disease: 8/ 10 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus die of cardiovascular disease.
  2.  Cerebrovascular disease: Diabetics are 2 – 4 times more likely to have stroke.
  3. Peripheral Vascular disease:  This is also a major cause for amputations. The glucose laden tissues fail to heal properly.

Traditionally, lifestyle changes including losing excess weight, eating a healthful diet and engaging in regular exercise are the first-line treatments for type 2 diabetes.

When these modifications do not make enough of a dent in the disease, medications can be prescribed.

Some medications help the pancreas produce more insulin, while others help the body use the insulin that it does produce more efficiently.

If these drugs don’t work, a person may need to take insulin.

Even with good medical control, some patients still go on dialysis, lose limbs, and have significant heart attacks, drug reactions and other complications.

The notion that medical therapy is without risk is absolutely incorrect.

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